Microbiology Application Steps

Applications & Solutions Series

Microbiology is a discipline that contains lots of subdivision that can be divided into two main branches: “pure” microbiology with taxonomy subdivisions (bacteriology, virology, parasitology, mycology...) and applied sciences as pharmaceutical microbiology which aims to study microorganisms related to the production of antibiotics, vaccines..., environmental microbiology or medical microbiology that study pathogens and their roles into human illness.

Significant Events in Microbiology

  • 1676

    Anton van Leeuwenhoek reported the discovery of micro-organisms.[1]

  • 1862

    Louis Pasteur demonstrated that fermentation is caused by the growth of micro-organisms, and the emergent growth of bacteria in nutrient broths is due not to spontaneous generation, but rather to biogenesis. [2]

  • 1898

    Martinus Beijerinck discovered viruses and developped enrichment culture techniques. [3]

  • 1876

    Robert Koch was the first to demonstrate that bacteria Bacillus anthracis was the germ that cause the disease Anthrax. [4]

  • 1884

    Hans Christian Gram developed a new staining technique which will become the standard in bacteriology. [5]

  • 1887

    Petri Dish has been invented by R.J. Petri, a German bacteriologist. [6]

  • 1928

    Penicillin antibiotics were the first drugs to be effective against many previously serious diseases, such as syphilis and were discovered by Alexander Fleming. [7]

  • 1937

    Edouard Chatton developed the subdivision between eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems of cellular organisation. [7]

  • 1953

    Lowff exposed the fundamental characteristic which differentiates bacteria and viruses [7].

  1. Biblia Naturae (2011, reproduction of a book published before 1923, by Jan Swammerdam (Author) , Herman Boerhaave (Author) , Hieronymus David Gaubius (Creator), Nabu Press, ISBN-10: 1272225054
  2. Wainwright, Milton (2003). An Alternative View of the Early History of Microbiology. "Advances in Applied Microbiology Volume 52". Advances in applied microbiology. Advances in Applied Microbiology 52: 333–55.
  3. Johnson J (2001) [1998]. "Martinus Willem Beijerinck". APSnet. American Phytopathological Society. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  4. Koch, R. (1876) "Untersuchungen über Bakterien: V. Die Ätiologie der Milzbrand-Krankheit, begründet auf die Entwicklungsgeschichte des Bacillus anthracis" (Investigations into bacteria: V. The etiology of anthrax, based on the ontogenesis ofBacillus anthracis), Cohns Beitrage zur Biologie der Pflanzen, vol. 2, no. 2, pages 277–310
  5. Gram, HC (1884). "Über die isolierte Färbung der Schizomyceten in Schnitt- und Trockenpräparaten". Fortschritte der Medizin (in German) 2: 185–189..
  6. Peter Voswinckel (2001) (in German). "Petri, Julius Richard ". In Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB). 20. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot. pp. 263 et seq.
  7. Bactériologie Médicale, Azèle Ferron, Edition 1994, ISBN 2-85510.038.0

For research starting from tissues, you have to isolate your cells of interest.
This first step can be done mechanically or chemically.

Then, cell separation which is a powerful tool, widely used in biological and biomedical research as well as clinical therapy allow to sort cells into distinct populations.
This step enables, from a heterogeneous population, the study of a specific cell type isolated without contamination from other cell types.

The three core themes shared by all cell separation techniques are:

  • density
  • adherence
  • antibody binding


  • Product information
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Product solutions

  • Cell density gradient media
  • Centrifuge
  • Centrifuge tubes
  • Chemically isolated solutions
  • Dialysis/Desalting
  • Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)
  • Magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS)
  • Mechanically isolation solutions

In order to help you to achieve breakthroughs in cell Biology, Fisher Scientific is providing product solutions at every stage of your cell culture process.

A wide range of best-in-class products allow you to overcome obstacles and to help you work more productively and more efficiently:

  • Biological safety cabinet to preserve samples from contamination
  • CO2 incubators, sterile consumables and cell culture reagents to ensure consistent growth
  • Microscopes to allow visualization of your cells.


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Product solutions

  • Biological Safety Cabinets
  • Carbon Dioxide Incubators
  • Cell Culture Consumables
  • Cell Lines
  • Counting Devices
  • Media
  • Microscopes and Cellular Imaging
  • Pipetting Aids
  • Sera
  • Serological Pipettes
  • Specialty Growth Systems
  • Supplements & Reagents

Fisher Scientific offers a broad range of solutions to help you understand the factors underlining cell function and health.

Diverse products like probes, antibodies, instruments will allow you to visualize cells, proteins and improve your flow cytometry experiments.


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Product solutions

  • Antibody
  • Apoptosis reagents and kits
  • Cell growth differentiation kits
  • Flow cytometry
  • Fluorescent stains
  • Immunohistochemistry
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  • Nitric oxide pathway reagents and kits
  • Signal transduction reagents and kits

Cell line and tissue samples are precious— in many cases, unique—representing a significant investment of time and expertise.

Protecting that investment is important and our storage solutions are here to help you


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Product solutions

  • Cryogenic storage accessories
  • Cryogenic storage containers
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